Cookie policy


We prepare and issue the pages of this website in the UK and they’re intended for the information and use of UK residents only.

Please read this notice about how we use cookies carefully as you’ll be legally bound by it. We reserve the right to amend it at any time and to let you know by posting an updated version on our website. You’ll be deemed to have accepted the amendments by continuing to use the website.

Any reference to ‘we’, ‘us’ or ‘our’ means Guardian.


Cookies are text files containing small amounts of information. They’re downloaded to your device when you visit a website. A cookie is sent back to the originating website on each subsequent visit, or to another website that recognises it. Cookies are useful because they allow a website to recognise a user’s device.

Cookies do lots of different jobs, like letting you navigate between pages efficiently and remembering your preferences. They generally improve your experience of using our website.

With most internet browsers, you can erase cookies from your computer hard drive, block all cookies or receive a warning before a cookie is stored. If you want to know how to do this, please look at the help menu on your web browser. However, switching off or opting out of the use of cookies may mean that you won’t be able to use certain features of the website. Find out more about the use of cookies and how to switch them off at – please note, we can’t be held responsible for information provided on external websites.


Strictly necessary cookies
These cookies are essential to let you move around the website and use its features – for example, accessing secure areas. Without these cookies we can’t provide services such as remembering form data. These cookies don’t gather information about you that could be used for marketing or remembering where you’ve been on the internet.

Performance cookies
These cookies collect information about how visitors use a website. For instance, which pages they go to most often, frequently viewed documents and error messages presented. Performance cookies can also be referred to as statistics/analytics cookies.

We use Google Analytics, a web analytics service provided by Google, Inc. Google Analytics sets a cookie to track your use of the website and compile reports for us on activity to help us improve the experience for our users. Google stores the information collected by a cookie. It may also transfer the information to third parties where required to do so by law, or where such third parties process it on Google’s behalf. Google won’t associate you or your Internet Provider address with any other data it holds.

The actions of performance cookies include registering a unique ID that is used to generate statistical data on how a visitor to that site uses the website. Other actions include collecting data on a user’s visits to the website, such as which pages have been read.

These cookies don’t collect information that identifies you. All the information these cookies collect is anonymous and is only used to improve how a website works.

Functionality cookies
These cookies allow the website to remember choices you make, such as your user name, and help us provide enhanced features. They may also be used to provide services you’ve requested such as watching a video. The information these cookies collect may be anonymised and they can’t track your browsing activity on other websites.

Marketing cookies

Marketing cookies are used by Google to register and report your actions after viewing or clicking on one of the advertisers ads with the purpose of measuring the efficiency of an ad. They’re also used to present you with targeted ads and then measure the efficiency of those ads.

Marketing cookies can also be used to check if your browser supports cookies. This cookie is used to optimise ad relevance by collecting your data from multiple websites – this exchange of data is normally provided by a third-party datacentre or ad-exchange.


By using this website you agree that we can place cookies on your device. If you reject these cookies then we can’t predict how our website will perform when you visit it. Nor can we guarantee your security.


You can, if you wish, remove cookies from your device. To find out how to reject or delete these cookies, visit:

You can also find information on how to reject or delete Google cookies at:


We’ll only set cookies on your device that aren’t strictly necessary to allow you to use the website if you’ve provided consent. If you’re concerned about having cookies on your device, you can use your browser settings to:

  • delete all cookies
  • block all cookies
  • allow all cookies
  • block third-party cookies
  • clear all cookies when you close the browser
  • open a ‘private browsing’ / ‘incognito’ session, which allows you to browse the internet without storing local data
  • notify you each time new cookies are placed on your device
  • install add-ons and plug-ins to extend browser functionality

Please note, we can’t be held responsible for information provided on external websites.


We keep our cookies policy under regular review and we’ll reflect any updates in this notice. It was last updated in July 2023.